BERNARD Q. NIETSCHMANN
University Education and Appointments
Advisory Positions and Committees
Research Grants, Fellowships and Awards
Research Sites
Publications
Maps
Articles and Editorials
Lectures and Interviews
Teaching

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

1970 University of Wisconsin, Ph.D., Geography
1968 University of Wisconsin, M.A., Geography
1965 University of California at Los Angeles B.A. (Highest Honors), Geography


UNIVERSITY APPOINTMENTS

1970-73 University of Michigan, Department of Geography, Assistant Professor

1973-77 University of Michigan, Department of Geography, Associate Professor

1976-77 Senior Research Fellow, Department of Human Geography, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra

1977-79 University of California, Berkeley, Department of Geography, Associate Professor

1979- University of California, Berkeley, Department of Geography, Professor

1980 Visiting Professor, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

1985 Visiting Professor, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii (March)

1988-89 Director, University of California Education Abroad Program, San José, Costa Rica

1990-91 Co-Director, Regiones Fronterizas, Confederación Universitaria Centroamericana —CSUCA, San José, Costa Rica


OTHER SERVICE

Member, Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society, 1993–

Member, Technical Planning Team, Miskito Coast Protected Area, Nicaragua, 1992–1996

Member, IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group, 1991–


ADVISORY POSITIONS

Misurasata, 1983-1987
Center for World Indigenous Studies, founding member of Board of Directors, 1984-
YATAMA, 1987-1990
Science Advisory Committee, The Explorer’s Club, 1984-1990
Board of Directors and Founding Board Member, Fundación de Salvavidas y Protección Costera de Costa Rica, 1989-
Coordinator, Scientific Advisors for Government of Nicaragua, AC-IRENA, 1990-1995
Environmental Advisor, Nicaraguan Government, 1990–
Advisor, Mikupia (Miskito Environmental Protection NGO)
Advisor, Fundación Nicaragüense Pro Conservación de la Naturaleza
Board of Directors, Native Lands, 1995–
Board of Directors, Sub Ocean Safety, 1995–
Technical Director, Maya Mapping Project, 1996–


UNIVERSITY COMMITTEES, ADMINISTRATION

Department:
Undergraduate Advisor, 1977-79, 1991–
Graduate Advisor, 1979-80
Acting Chairman, 1980-81
Chairman, Planning and Curriculum Committee, 1987, 1992–94

University:
Academic Freedom, 1984-1986
Executive Committee, Center for Latin America Studies, 1978-79, 1984
Chancellor’s Committee on Affirmative Action, 1983
Chancellor’s Committee on Title IX, 1982-83

UC System:
Director, UC Education Abroad Program, University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica, 1988-89


MAGAZINE COLUMN

"Naturalist at Large," for Natural History magazine, 1976-77


RESEARCH INTERESTS

Community-based conservation
Cultural and biological diversity
Sustainable environments
Dangerous coastal environments
Ocean geography (ocean, coast and island environments, biota, ecology and peoples)
The Fourth World (non-state nations)
Cultural geography
The Caribbean, Latin America, Melanesia, Oceania
Field research methods and theories


RESEARCH GRANTS, FELLOWSHIPS, AWARDS:

2000 Robert McNetting Award, awarded posthumously by the Cultural Ecology Group at the annual meeting of the Association of American Geographers, April.

1998 Earthwatch, "Costa Rica’s River Wildlife"

1998 National Geographic Society, "Coral Reefs of the World"

1997 Earthwatch, "Costa Rica’s River Wildlife"

1997-98 University of California, Pacific Rim, "Pacific Rim Rip Currents and Beach Safety Programs"

1996-98 National Geographic Society, "Marine Biology and Marine Geography of the Miskito Shelf, Nicaragua"

1996 Distinguished Teaching Award, Letters and Science, University of California, Berkeley

1996 University of California, Distinguished Teaching Award, Letters and Science.

1996 National Geographic Society, grant for field research, Community-based Mapping and Monitoring of Coral Reefs

1993 Pew Fellow in Conservation and Environment, 1993-97

1993 University of California, Pacific Rim Research Program, Central American Pacific Coast Biodiversity, 1993-97

1991 Conservation Fellow, Caribbean Conservation Corporation

1990-91 World Wildlife Fund, grant for seminars and workshops on protected areas and coastal ecology, Miskito communities

1990-91 MacArthur Foundation Grant, Peace and International Cooperation, Costa Rica and Nicaragua

1986 MacArthur Foundation Grant on International Security

1980 National Geographic Society, grant for field research, Torres Strait, Australia

1976-77 National Geographic Society, grant for field research, Torres Strait, Australia

1975-76 Fellowship, John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation

1974 Henry Russell Award, most distinguished scholarly research by a younger faculty member, University of Michigan

1972 National Geographic Society, grant for field research, Nicaragua and Western Caribbean

1972 Rackham Grant, University of Michigan, research

1971 Social Science Research Council, grant for field research, Nicaragua

1970 Travel Grant, Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research


RESEARCH

1998 Costa Rica, community-based conservation of manatees and other aquatic life, northeastern Costa Rica

1998 Central America, dangerous beaches

1997 Costa Rica, community-based conservation of manatees and other aquatic life, northeastern Costa Rica

1997 Central America, dangerous beaches

1996 California, dangerous beaches, October

1996 Belize, Maya maps, April, July, September

1996 Nicaragua, Miskito coral reef inventories, mapping and monitoring, July

1996 Costa Rica, manatees, June

1995 Central America, coastal biodiversity conservation

1995 Eastern Caribbean, conservation needs and programs

1994 Miskito Shelf and Miskito Reefs, Nicaragua.

1994 Central America, biodiversity conservation.

1993 Nicaragua, coastal biodiversity, October.

1993 Nicaragua and Costa Rica, coastal biodiversity, July–August.

1993 Antigua, Dominica, St Lucia, coastal biodiversity, March.

1992 Nicaragua, western Caribbean, medical and health threats to Miskito lobster divers, Miskito Cays, Sandy Bay (SCUBA training workshops and seminars), June.

1992 Nicaragua, Miskito Nation and western Caribbean, sea turtles and turtling, with National Geographic Society writer and photographers, April.

1992 Hawaii, traditional navigation and canoe building, March.

1991 Nicaragua. Legal creation of Miskito Coast Protected Area, October.

1991 Coastal environments and protected areas, northeastern Nicaragua

1990-91 Costa Rica-Nicaragua: transborder studies, sustainable development, establishment of national and transnational protected areas, defense against resource pirates and drug traffickers

1988-89 Refugees, peace and conflict initiatives, environmental transformation

1987 Geneva, United Nations, Working Group on Indigenous Populations, July-August

1986 Indian refugees, Honduras and Costa Rica, summer

1985 Geneva, United Nations, Working Group on Indigenous Populations, July-August

1984 Field research, State-indigenous nation conflicts, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras

1983 Field research, State-indigenous nation conflicts, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua

1982 Tropical inshore fishing and small island fisheries; (Seychelles, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Philippines, Guam, Ponape)

1982 Intensive systems of resource use among the Hill People (Thailand), Toradja (Sulawesi), and Ifugao (C. Luzon, Philippines)

1982 Library research, Torres Strait Expedition, Cambridge University Library, Cambridge, England

1980 Environmental Knowledge, Torres Strait, Australia; Cook Islands; Marine Reserve, Nicaragua

1976-77 Ecology of dugongs, sea turtles, seagrasses, and marine hunters, Torres Strait, Australia

1976 Marine resource use, Polynesia and Melanesia

1976 Endangered species, Nicaragua

1975 Field research on ecological and environmental change, Nicaragua

1974 Field research, coral reef ecology, Cayman Islands, B.W.I.

1973 Produced and photographed documentary 16 mm film on the Mexican Revolution and subsequent social and economic change, Mexico

1972 Field research on the ecology and migration of sea turtles, Nicaragua

1971 Field research on changing energy and social relations in a subsistence society, Nicaragua

1970 Field research, eastern Peru

1968-69 Field research, ecology of subsistence, Miskito community, Nicaragua

1967 Field research and field class, Organization for Tropical Studies, Costa Rica

1966 Field research on evolution of the hacienda and the Revolution, Mexico


PUBLICATIONS

Books

1973 Between Land and Water: The Subsistence Ecology of the Miskito Indians, Eastern Nicaragua. New York: Seminar Press, 279 pp.

1977 Memorias de Arrecife Tortuga: Historia Natural y Económica de las Tortugas en el Caribe de América Central. (Contributing editor; includes papers by Archie Carr, David D. Duncan, Peter Matthiessen, James J. Parsons, Brian Weiss, and others.) Colección Cultural, Banco de América, Managua, Nicaragua, 258 pp.

1979 Caribbean Edge: The Coming of Modern Times to Isolated People and Wildlife. New York: Bobbs-Merrill Co., Trade Division, 280 pp.

1989 The Unknown War: The Miskito Nation, Nicaragua and the United States. Freedom House and University Press of America, New York. 111 pp.


Articles

1969 "The Distribution of Miskito, Sumu, and Rama Indians, Eastern Nicaragua," Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research. International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Vienna, No. 11, pp. 91-102.

1971 "The Substance of Subsistence," Geographic Research on Latin America. Lentnek, Carmin, Martinson (eds.), pp. 167-181, Muncie: Ball State University.

1971 "The Study of Indigenous Food Production Systems: Mere Subsistence or Merrily Subsisting?" Revista Geográfica, Vol. 74, pp. 83-99.

1972 "Hunting and Fishing Focus Among the Miskito Indians, Eastern Nicaragua," Human Ecology, Vol. 1, pp. 41-67. Reprinted: Warner Modular Publications and MSS Publications.

1972 "The Rama Indians of Nicaragua," Terra Ameriga, Italy, Vol. 23-24, pp. 7-12. Reprinted: Encuentro, Número 4, pp. 66-74, 1974, (Nicaragua).

1972 "Hunting and Fishing Productivity of the Miskito Indians, Eastern Nicaragua," Actas y Memorias del XXXIX Congreso Internacional de Americanistas, Vol. 4, pp. 69-88, Lima: Instituto de Estudios Peruanos.

1974 "When the Turtle Collapses, the World Ends," Natural History, Vol. 83, pp. 34-43. Reprinted: Chelonia, Vol. 2, No. 1, Jan-Feb., 1975; Cinderella’s Housework Dialectics, Incunable, 1978; Caribbean Review, Vol. IX, No. 2, pp. 14-21, 1980; Contemporary Anthropology, Knopf, 1981; Critical Thinking, Critical Choices, Prentice-Hall, 1985; Conformity and Conflict, 7th Ed., Scott, Foreman and Co., 1989; Peoples of the Past and Present, Jean-Luc Chodkiewicz, ed., HBJ-Holt, Canada, 1993.

1974 "Cambio y Continuidad: Los Indígenas Rama de Nicaragua," América Indígena, Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 905-918.

1975 "Green Sea Turtles and the Protein Connection," Chelonia, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 9-14. Paper originally presented at the 71st Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Milwaukee, April, 8 pp.

1975 "Beyond the Bizarre with Rumplestiltskin," Reviews in Anthropology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 157-168.

1975 Who Will Kill the Last Turtle? Collected Papers on Vanishing Species and Societies, Nicaragua. Department of Geography, University of Michigan, 199 pp.

1976 "Of Turtles, Arribadas, and People," Chelonia, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 6-9.

1976 "Drift Coconuts," Natural History, Vol. 85, No. 9 (November), pp. 20-31.

1977 "The Nicaraguan Skin Connection," Natural History, Vol. 86, No. 1 (January), pp. 28-30.

1977 "The Wind Caller," Natural History, Vol. 86, No. 3 (March), pp. 10-16. Reprinted: Reader’s Digest, Canadian Edition, October, 1977.

1977 "The Bambi Factor," Natural History, Vol. 86, No. 7 (August-September), pp. 84-87. Reprinted: Consumer Behavior, Prentice-Hall, 1982.

1978 Commentary on "Food Taboos in Amazon Cultural Ecology," by Eric Ross. Current Anthropology, Vol. 19, No. 1, (March), pp. 23-24.

1979 "Ecological Change, Inflation, and Migration in the Far Western Caribbean," The Geographical Review, Vol. 69, No. 1 (January), pp. 1-24. Paper originally presented at the 74th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, New Orleans, 1977. Reprinted: Re-Reading Cultural Geography, 1993.

1980 "Turtles and the Revolution," Natural History, Vol. 89, No. 2 (February), pp. 8-9 (update on Nicaragua research).

1980 "The Limits to Protein," in Working Papers on South American Indians, No. 2, Raymond Hames (ed.), pp. 131-137, Bennington, Vt.

1981 "Good Dugong, Bad Dugong; Bad Turtle, Good Turtle," Natural History, Vol. 90, No. 5 (May), pp. 54-63, 86-87.

1981 "Following the Underwater Trail of a Vanishing Species: The Hawksbill," National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1972, Vol. 13, pp. 459-492.

1982 "Crossroads Cultures," Chapter Three of Lost Empires, Living Tribes, (R. Bennett, ed.), National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 177-208.

1982 "The Cultural Context of Sea Turtle Subsistence Hunting in the Caribbean and Problems Caused by Commercial Exploitation," in Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles, Karen A. Bjorndal (ed.), Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, pp. 439-445.

1984 "Biosphere Reserves and Traditional Societies," in Conservation, Science and Society, pp. 499-508, UNESCO, Paris.

1984 "Nicaragua’s Other War," Co-Evolution Quarterly, No. 41, Summer, 1984, pp. 40-47.

1984 "The Unreported War Against the Sandinistas," Policy Review, No. 29, Summer, 1984, pp. 32-39. Rocky Mountain News, editorial, July 21, 1984. Reprinted: Military Review (Edición Hispanoamericana) Vol. LXIV, Num 11-12, 1984, pp. 44-54; Berkeley Review, Vol. 4, Issue 7, November 4, 1985, pp. 4-5.

1984 "Violaciones a Los Derechos de Los Misquitos," Vuelta 94 (Mexico City), Vol. 8, pp. 46-47, September.

1984 "Defending the Miskitos," Co-Evolution Quarterly, No. 43, Fall, pp. 76-77.

1984 "Indigenous Island Peoples, Living Resources and Protected Areas," in National Parks, Conservation, and Development (edited by Jeffrey A. McNeely and Kenton R. Miller), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 333-343. Reprinted: Resident Populations and National Parks in Developing Countries: Interdisciplinary Perspectives and Policy Implications (edited by Patrick C. West and Steve Brechin), Monograph #4, Natural Resources Sociology Series, University of Michigan, forthcoming; Reprinted: Selected Readings (Environment Canada Parks staff) Heritage Resources Centre, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 1986.

1984 "Hunting and Ecology of Dugongs and Green Turtles, Torres Strait, Australia," National Geographic Society Research Reports, 1976, Vol. 17, pp. 625-651.

1985 "Misurasata/Sandinista Negotiations," Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 59-60.

1985 "Torres Strait Islander Sea Resource Management and Sea Rights," The Traditional Knowledge and Management of Coastal Systems in Asia and the Pacific (Kenneth Ruddle and R.E. Johannes, editors), UNESCO, Jakarta, pp. 124-165.

1985 "Sandinismo y Lukanka India," Vuelta [Mexico City], No. 107, October, pp. 53-54.

1986 "Economic Development By Invasion of Indigenous Nations," Cultural Survival Quarterly 10(2):2-12.

1986 "Indonesia and Bangladesh: Disguised Invasion of Indigenous Nations," Fourth World Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 89-126.

1986 "Central America Becomes Central," Fourth World Journal, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 227-256.

1986 "Paper Autonomy and Indian Rights," Fourth World Journal, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 283-284.

1987 "Indonesia’s Silent Genocide Against Papuan Independence," Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 75-78 (with Thomas J. Eley).

1987 "The New Pacific: Geopolitics of Pacific Island Fisheries," Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 2, pp. 7-9.

1987 "The Third World War." Cultural Survival Quarterly, 11(3):1-16. Portions reprinted in Ariadne’s Thread: The Search for New Modes of Thinking. St. Martin’s Press and Macmillan (London), Mary E. Clark, 1988; On Beyond War, Issue No. 46, February 1989, Walt Hays; Unte Reader, November-December, 1988, pp. 84-91; Third World 89/90, edited by Jeffrey Elliot, Dushkin, pp. 33-36; Global Issues 89/90, Dushkin Press; Militarization of the Third World, Symposia Project, Tufts University, 1990, pp. 51-58.

1987 "Nuclear Weapon States and Fourth World Nations," Cultural Survival Quarterly 11(4):5-7 (with William Le Bon). (Reprinted in Ward Churchill, ed., IWGIA, 1989.)

1988 "Third World Colonial Expansion: Indonesia, Disguised Invasion of Indigenous Nations," in Tribal Peoples and Development Issues. A Global Overview. John Bodley, ed., pp. 191-207, Mayfield Press, Mountain View, California.

1988 "Miskito and Kuna Struggle for Nation Autonomy," in Tribal Peoples and Development Issues. A Global Overview. John Bodley, ed., pp. 271-280, Mayfield Press, Mountain View, California.

1988 "Facing the Waves." In Living on Earth (Edited by David Robinson), National Geographic Society, Washington, pp. 280-313.

1988 "A Close Shave Sandinista Style," Freedom at Issue, July-August, pp. 13-18. Reprinted in El Pensamiento Centroamericano, 1990.

1989 "Traditional Sea Territories, Resources and Rights in Torres Strait." In A Sea of Small Boats (John Cordell, ed.), pp. 60-93, Cultural Survival Report, No. 26, Cultural Survival, Inc., Cambridge, Mass.

1990 "Bruno Gabriel: A Miskito Nationalist and Revolutionary," Fourth World Journal, 2(3), pp. 161-184.

1990 "Battlefields of Ashes and Mud," Natural History, November, pp. 34-37.

1990 "Conservation by Conflict," Natural History, November, pp. 42-49.

1991 "The Miskito Nation and the Geopolitics of Self-Determination," Journal of Political Science, Vol. 19, pp. 18-40 (Reprinted in The Ethnic Dimension in International Relations, edited by Bernard Schechterman and Martin Slann, Prager, 1992).

1991 "Nicaragua," Encyclopaedia Britannica. Chicago, Illinois.

1991 "Miskito Coast Protected Area," Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society, 7 (2):232-234.

1992 "Conservation by Self-Determination," Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society, 7 (3):372-373.

1992 "The Geopolitics and Ecopolitics of the Río San Juan," Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society, 8 (2):24-34 (with Pascal O. Girot).

1992 "The Co-Existence of Cultural and Biological Diversity," International Security: The Environmental Dimension. EPIIC, Tufts University, Boston.

1992 "The Interdependence of Biological and Cultural Diversity." Center for World Indigenous Studies, Occasional Paper #21.

1993 "The Development of Autonomy in the Miskito Nation," Fourth World Bulletin, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 1, 6-7, 15, (University of Colorado at Denver).

1993 "Nicaragua’s New Environmental Alliance for Indian-Latin America," Research and Exploration, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 270-271.

1993 "Authentic, State and Virtual Geography in Film," Wide Angle, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Journal of Film History, Theory, Criticism and Practice, Johns Hopkins University Press).

1994 "The Fourth World: Nations Versus States," in Reordering the World: Geopolitical Perspectives on the Twenty-First Century, George J. Demko and William Wood, eds., Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, pp. 225-242.

1995 "Defending the Miskito Reefs with Maps and GPS: Mapping With Sail, Scuba and Satellite," Cultural Survival Quarterly, Winter, 1995, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 34-37.

1996 "Conservación, Autodeterminación y el Area Protegida Costa Miskita, Nicaragua," in La Lucha por la Tierra en la Ultima Frontera de Centroamérica, edited by Mac Chapin, Mesoamérica, cuaderno 29, pp. 1-56, CIRMA, Antigua, Guatemala.

1997 "Protecting Indigenous Coral Reefs and Sea Territories, Miskito Coast, RAAN, Nicaragua," in Conservation Through Cultural Survival: Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas, Stanley F. Stevens, ed., Island Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 193-224.

1997 "Worldwide Dangerous Beach Survey," in International Medical Rescue Conference, Proceedings, International Life Saving Federation, September, San Diego, CA.

1997 "The Making of the Maya Atlas," in Maya Atlas, Toledo Maya Cultural Council and the Toledo Alcaldes Association, pp. 136-149, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley, CA.



Maps

1992 Nicaraguan peoples and environments. In, "The Coexistence of Indigenous Peoples and Natural Environments in Central America." National Geographic Society, 40x30 inches, two-sided, English and Spanish.

1998 "Coral Reefs of the World," 20"x54" double-sided map, National Geographic Society, Committee for Research and Exploration, in cooperation with the University of California’s GeoMap.



NEWSPAPER ARTICLES, EDITORIALS, OTHER PUBLICATIONS

1971 "Destrucción de la Fauna de la Costa Atlántica," La Prensa. Managua, Nicaragua, September 5.

1971 "La Distribución de los Indios Miskitos, Sumos, y Ramas en el Este de Nicaragua," Instituto Geográfico Nacional, Ministerio de Obras Públicas, Managua, Nicaragua.

1982 "Ethnic War in Nicaragua," Congressional Record, Tuesday, August 2.

1983 Statement Before the Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, on "The Situation of the Indians in Nicaragua," October 3, 1983, Washington, D.C., 12 pp. Reprinted: Indian Law Resource Center, Washington, D.C.; Akwesasne Notes, Vol. 15, No. 5, Fall 1983; Congressional Record, October 20, 1983, E5040-E5043; Bolivian Indian Group; Revolutionary Democratic Alliance (ARDE) newspaper, No. 4, November-December, 1983; Quotidien de Paris, December 21, 1983; December 21, 1983; Lakota Times, December 1983 and January 1984; I editorial, January 7, 1984; Social Justice Review, Vol. 75 (1-2) January-February 1984, pp. 9-12; Menschenrechte, January-February, 1984, pp. 10-11 (International Society for Human Rights); Swedish Broadcasting Corporation; Christians Under Fire, by Humberto Belli, The Puebla Institute, Garden City, N.J., 1984; Committee on Native American Struggles, National Lawyers Guild, Newsletter, Summer 1984, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 23-27; From Revolution to Repression: Human Rights in Nicaragua under the Sandinistas, U.S. Department of State, March, 1986, pp. 135-141.

1983 "For the Record," Washington Post, October 10, 1983.

1983 "Miskito-Sandinista War," Akwesasne Notes, vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 4-6, Fall 1983.

1983 "Indian War and Peace in Nicaragua," Akwesasne Notes, Vol. 15, No. 6, Winter 1983, pp. 3 (with cover photo).

1983 "Nicaraguan Indians’ Struggle," New York Times, Op-Ed, December 31, 1983, p. 31.

1984 "Sandinismo No Podrá Vencer La Resistencia de Indígenas," La Republica, (San José, Costa Rica), January 23, 1984, p. 8.

1984 (with Dr. Hugo Spadafora) "La Lucha de los Indios de Nicaragua y La Comisión de Kissinger," La Nacion International (San José, Costa Rica), January 27, 1984, p. 11; and La Prensa (Panama City, Panama), February, 1984. Reprinted: Las Derrotas Somocista y Comunista en Nicaragua, by Dr. Hugo Spadafora, San José, Costa Rica, 1985, pp. 112-115.

1984 "The Indian Resistance in Nicaragua," Akwesasne Notes, Vol. 16, No. 2, Early Spring, pp. 12-13. Reprinted: Overthrow, Vol. VI, No. 3, pp. 23-24.

1984 "Inside and Outside the Indian Resistance in Nicaragua," Occasional Paper No. 1, Center for World Indigenous Studies, 14 pp. Portions reprinted in Committee on Native American Struggles, National Lawyers Guild, Newsletter, Summer 1984, Vol. 7, No. 2, p. 7. Reprinted: Indianer in Nicaragua, International Gesellschaft Für Menschenechte, E.U., August.

1984 "Nietschmann Replies," Express (Berkeley, CA), Vol. 6, No. 47, pp. 2-3.

1985 "Disguised Invasion of the South Seas" [West Papua], The New York Times, Wednesday, January 16, 1985, p. 20. Reprinted: Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1985.

1985 "Indian Nations and the Nicaraguan State," pp. 29-41; "Indian Trabilka on the Atlantic Coast," pp. 55-58, in Indian War and Peace with Nicaragua (edited by Eleanor J. Menzies), Center for World Indigenous Studies, Fourth World Paper Series. Reprinted: From Revolution to Repression: Human Rights in Nicaragua Under the Sandinistas, U.S. Department of State, March, 1986, pp. 142-145.

1985 "Miskito, Sumo and Rama Nations: The Ins and Outs of Indian Territory," Akwesasne Notes, Late Summer, Vol. No. 4, pp. 10-11.

1985 "Morocco’s Sand Castle War," The New York Times, Saturday, August 31, 1985, p. 16. Reprinted: Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 3, 1985, p. 23.

1985 "Fourth World Nations: Conflicts and Alternatives," The Other Side of the Frontier (Bernard Nietschmann, editor), Department of Geography, UC Berkeley, pp. 1-6.

1985 "Fourth World Rights and Wars." Americans Before Columbus, National Indian Youth Council, Vol. 13, No. 3, pp. 1, 2-5.

1985 Interview and articles, "Indians Struggle Under Marx and Smith," and "The Wars that Go Unreported," The Berkeley Review, Vol. 4, Issue 7, November 4, pp. 1, 4-5.

1985 "The Karen People in Burma Are More than an Ethnic Group," The New York Times, Friday, November 29, p. 24. Reprinted: Cultural Survival Quarterly, Vol. 9, No. 4, 1985, p. 34.

1986 "Sandinista Tactics Against Miskito Group," The New York Times, February 17, 1986, p. 16.

1986 "As Vote Nears, Try This Little Nicaragua Quiz," The Wall Street Journal, Op-Ed, Monday, April 14, 1986, p. 24.

1986 "Indians Fighting the Sandinistas Aren’t Contras," The New York Times, Saturday, August 9, p. 14.

1986 "Forward: The Next Revolution," in Alice Wilson: A True Nicaraguan Adventure. Leon Cyens, Chelonia Press, San Francisco.

1986 "A Treaty for Genocide Against West Papua," Occasional Paper No. 10, Center for World Indigenous Studies, Kenmore, Washington (with Kupamal Markai).

1987 "Drugs-for-Guns Cycle Produces Bitter Ironies," The New York Times, Friday, August 28, p. 22.

1987 "Peace in Central America? Not for Its Indian People," The Washington Post, Editorial, Sunday, September 20, p. C7. (Reprinted in the San Jose Mercury News, Houston Chronicle, San Francisco Chronicle [10-7], Akwesane Notes Early Fall, 1987 (Vol. 19 (5):22, 26), and many more papers).

1987 "Appropriated Territory Serves as Nuclear Test Site." The Daily Californian, Monday, November 23, p. 4, (with William Le Bon).

1988 "The Gentle Tasaday Are Merely a Persistent Hoax," The New York Times, January 9, 1988, p. 14. (with David Hyndman).

1988 "Nuclear States and the Fourth World," Earth Island Journal 3 (1) (with William Le Bon).

1989 "Nuclear Weapons and Indigenous Nations," Working Papers, Center for International Cooperation and Security Studies, Madison, Wisconsin, 1989.

1989 "War in the Fourth World: The Political Geography of Violent Conflict and Contemporary Self-Determination." With Jerome E. Taylor. Poster Session, AAAS, San Francisco, 1989.

1992 "The World According to Nietschmann," interview by Chris Wille, Audubon, Nov.-Dec., 94(6):73.

1993 "The Miskito Coast," American Way, by Michael DiLio (in-flight magazine for American Airlines), May 15.

1993 Interview: "Geography Professor Helps Protect Nicaraguan Coastline: Wins Pew Award for Environmental Conservation Work," The Daily Californian, Wednesday, June 23, p. 3.

1993 Interview: "Academy Awards," California Monthly, September, 1993.

1998 "Why San Francisco’s Ocean Beach is America’s Deadliest City Shoreline," Op-Ed, San Francisco Examiner, Friday, August 14, p. A-21.


PAPERS, LECTURES, EXHIBITS, INTERVIEWS

1973 Participant, "NGS Photography and Photographic Research Methods." Seminar and workshop. Sponsored and run by staff from the National Geographic Society and Nikon, Inc., Department of Geography, University of Michigan, May, 1973.

1974 "Cultural Ecology: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed, Something Blue," Paper presented at the 70th Annual Meeting of the Association of American Geographers, Seattle, May, 14 pp.

1975 Discussant, "The Future of Land Use in the United States," National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C., December 8, 1975.

1976 "The Ecology of Marine Herbivores, Seagrasses, and Torres Strait Islanders," Preliminary research report, Department of Human Geography, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 16 pp.

1977 "Torres Strait Islander Hunters and Environment," Work-in-progress research report, Department of Human Geography, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 17 pp.

1977 "Eight Decades on an Island: Social and Ecological Relationships in the Torres Strait," Final research report, Department of Human Geography, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, 33 pp.

1978 Photographs exhibited, "Settlement of Polynesia," Lowie Museum, UC Berkeley, June-October.

1979 "The Hacienda and Agrarian Reform in the Llanos de Apan, Mexico," Paper presented at the XLIII International Congress of Americanists, Vancouver, Canada, August 11-17.

1979 Discussant, "Symposium on Protein Procurement by Native Amazonian Populations," International Congress of Americanists, Vancouver, Canada, August, 1979.

1979 "The Cultural Context of Sea Turtle Subsistence Hunting in the Caribbean and Problems Caused by Commercial Exploitation," Paper presented at the World Conference on Sea Turtle Conservation, Washington, D.C., November 26-30, 20 pp.

1980 "The Cultural Context of Hunting," Paper delivered at the International Geographical Congress, Tokyo, August, 1980.

1982 "Indigenous Island Peoples, Living Resources and Protected Areas," Invited paper presented at the 3rd World National Parks Congress, Bali, Indonesia, October 10-22, 19 pp.

1983 "Nicaraguan Indian War," slide talk given at the Annual Meeting of the National Congress of American Indians, Green Bay, Wisconsin, October 12, 1983.

1983 "The Indian Revolution in Nicaragua," Talk given at the University of California, Berkeley, sponsored by the Center for Latin American Studies, November 2, 1983.

1983 TV interview, KQED (Public Broadcasting Station, San Francisco), November.

1983 "Torres Strait Islander Sea Resource Management and Sea Rights," Invited paper presented at the UNESCO Workshop on Traditional Management of Coastal Systems, Jakarta, December 5-9, 40 pp.

1984 Interview: Current Situation of Indian-Sandinista War, Swedish Broadcasting Corp., San José, Costa Rica. January.

1984 TV interview and video footage from inside Nicaragua, "700 Club," February 7.

1984 "The Indian Resistance." Paper presented during symposium held by the Central American Coalition, Sir Francis Drake Hotel, San Francisco; TV and Press interviews, February 18.

1984 "Inside and Outside the Indian Resistance in Nicaragua." Invited public lecture hosted by the Department of Geography, Hayward State University, March 7.

1984 Testimony, Indian human rights in Nicaragua, Americas Watch, April 4.

1984 "Military and Political Struggle for Indigenous Cultural and Territorial Autonomy in Nicaragua and Panama." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, New York, Hilton, May 29, 13 pp. (in the Symposium: Anthropology and the Emerging World Order: The Position of Small-Scale Autonomous Cultures in Latin America," John H. Bodley, Arranger). Press interviews.

1984 Seminar leader, Global Indigenous Struggles, MISURA, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, June-July.

1984 TV interview, "Nicaragua," "700 Club," July 27.

1984 Interview: "The Nietschmann File," Express (Berkeley, CA), Vol. 6, No. 46, August 31, 1984.

1984 Photographic Exhibit, Indian Human Rights Violations by the FSLN, part of exhibit on "Situación de los Derechos Humanos in Nicaragua," La Comisión Permanente de Derechos Humanos de Nicaragua (CPDH), Hotel Costa Rica, September 28-29, San José, Costa Rica.

1984 "Revolutionary Indian Politics and Struggle in Nicaragua." Invited public lecture, Gettysburg College, October 30.

1984 Interview: "War Puts Scholar in Center of Storm." Detroit News, November 27.

1984 Advisor, Misurasata, Negotiations between Misurasata and the Nicaraguan government, Bogotá, Colombia, Palacio de San Carlos, December 8-9.

1984 Interviews: Time; 20/20 ABC; Swedish Broadcasting; Detroit News.

1984 "Behind Bogotá (An analysis of the first FSLN-MISURASATA Peace Treaty Negotiations, Bogotá, Colombia, December 8-9, 1984)," in Misurasata/Sandinista Peace Negotiations, National Indian Youth Council, March 15, 1985.

1985 Radio interview, Voice of America, "Indian War and Indian Leaders," January 15.

1985 "Islands and Oceans: The Impact of the Sea on Cultures of the South Seas and Caribbean." Lecture, UCLA Extension Series, "The Lore of the Sea," January 24.

1985 Radio interview, Swedish Broadcasting Corporation, "Miskito Indians and the Nicaraguan Government" (1 hr, 15 min.), January 31, 1985. Broadcast February 11, 1985.

1985 "Cultural Conflict in Australia’s Marine Outback." Public lecture, National Geographic Society, Gilbert H. Grosvenor Auditorium, Research and Exploration Series, Washington, D.C., February 25.

1985 Visiting Professor lectures, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii: "Indigenous Cultural Persistence in Torres Strait and Indian Nicaragua," March 5, "Sea Territories and Marine Resource Management," March 6, "Fourth World Resources, Rights and Wars" March 7, and "The Diffusion of the Fourth World" March 7.

1985 Roundtable member, "The Place of Native Society in the Western World," Alaska Native Review Commission, Anchorage, Alaska, March 13-16. Hon. Thomas J. Berger, Chairman. BQN discussion on Miskito situation, the Fourth World, indigenous peoples are not ethnic minorities, human rights and group rights, rights to sea territories and resources.

1985 "Indigenous People and Liberation: Focus on Human and Indian Rights in Nicaragua." Lecture given at the Immanuel Presbyterian Church and Seminary of the Church Lecture Series, "Alaska, Latin America and Liberation," March 13, Anchorage, Alaska.

1985 Advisor, Misurasata, negotiations between Misurasata and the Nicaraguan government, Bogotá, Colombia, Palacio de San Carlos, March 21-28.

1985 "Revolutionary Indian Politics and Armed Struggle in Nicaragua." Misurasata/Sandinista Peace Negotiations, National Indian Youth Council, March 15.

1985 Video footage, "Revolution in Nicaragua." WGBH, Boston, Public Broadcasting Service, April 11. Video footage of the Miskito war inside Indian Nicaragua.

1985 Advisor, Misurasata, negotiations between Misurasta and the Nicaraguan government, Mexico City, Ministerio de Economía, April 20-22, 1985.

1985 Interview: "Struggle with Sandinistas Latest Battle for Indians," Houston Chronicle, Saturday, May 11, 1985, p. 26.

1985 Radio Interview, Voice of America, "Indian Politics," June 4.

1985 "Negotiating With the Sandinistas." Position paper, June, 21 pp.

1985 Radio Interview, Voice of America, "Indian Sandinista War," June 25.

1985 Radio Interview, KPFK, Los Angeles, "The Miskito-Sandinista Conflict," August 14, 1985.

1985 Advisor, Western Shoshone Nation, December 7, Austin, Nevada.

1986 Radio Interview, Voice of America, "Nicaragua’s Hidden War," broadcast in two parts, March 31, 1986 and April, 1986.

1986 Lecture: "The Fourth World and Development." University of California, Davis, International Agricultural Development, April 23.

1986 Lecture: "The Geography of Conflict." University of California Extension, August 26.

1986 "Third-Side Geopolitics in Central America: The Miskito Revolution and the Nicaragua Conflict." Paper presented at the International Geographical Union, Barcelona, September 4, 1986.

1986 Lecture: "State and Nation Conflicts." Peace and Conflict class, University of California, Berkeley, September 28.

1986 Lecture: "Central American Refugees: A Geographer’s Perspective." San Mateo High School teachers, Redwood City, October 22.

1987 Lecture: "Central American Refugee Displacement" Symposium on "The Re-Hispanicization of California. Challenges for the Twenty-First Century." Sponsored by The Commonwealth Club of California, University of California, Stanford University, Commonwealth Club, Sheraton Palace Hotel, January 12.

1987 Lecture: "The Geography of Conflict." Peace and Conflict Studies, February 17, UC Berkeley.

1987 Lecture: "The New Pacific," Explorers Club, Northern California, Lawrence Hall of Science, Friday, April 24.

1987 Photographs: color photographs, Orion Nature Quarterly, Summer, 1987.

1987 Advisor. Western Shoshone National Council, Duckwater, Nuclear geography, June 3-6.

1987 Lecture: "The Third World War," Peace and Conflict Studies, September 29, UC Berkeley.

1987 Lecture: "The Third World War," Department of Geography, October 8.

1987 Lecture: "Peace and the Third World War," Peace and Conflict Studies, UC Berkeley Extension, November 24.

1988 Photographs: "Indians in the Crossfire: The Miskito, Sumo, and Rama Peoples." Exhibited in (1) the Rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building, Washington, D.C., November 16-20; (2) University of the District of Columbia, January 11-February 19, 1988; and (3) Rotunda of the Cannon House Office Building, February 29-March 12, 1988. Exhibit sponsored by Senators Edward M. Kennedy and John McCain, and Representatives Steven Gunderson and Dave McCurdy.

1988 Lecture: "Indian Nations and Central American States." Invited paper given at the Annual Meetings of the Conference of Latin Americanist Geographers (CLAG), [Session on "The Status of Indian Lands in Central America"], San Jose, Costa Rica, January 14, 1988.

1988 Interview: "Refugees Worry About Possible Camp Closure," Lezak Shallat, p. 18, Friday, May 13, 1988, The Tico Times, San Jose. [Pueblo Nuevo camp]

1988 Interview: Update on Yatama, Insight Magazine, Sunday May 8.

1988 Interview: Costa Rican politics and President Oscar Arias, Insight Magazine, May 23. [trips abroad, refugees]

1988 Interview: Cultural Survival, The Third World War, Insight Magazine, September 25.

1989 Lecture: "La Geografía de Guerra." Department of Geography, University of Costa Rica, April 12, 1989.

1989 Lecture: "Nuclear Weapons and Indigenous Nations." Center for International Cooperation and Security Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, April 27, 1989.

1989 Radio Interview: "The Geography of Nuclear Weapons," The Margaret Andreasen Show, Station WHA, Wisconsin Public Radio, 88.7, April 28, 1989, 2:30-3:30, Madison.

1989 Lecture: "Global Change and Future Directions for Environmental Education." Yosemite National Institute, Headlands, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, May 6.

1989 Talk: "Prospects for Peace between the Nicaraguan State and Indian Nations." U.S. Citizens Concerned for Peace, San José, Costa Rica, October 30, 1989.

1989 Radio Interview: "The Longest Wars and Prospects for Peace." Radio for International Peace, University for Peace, San José, Costa Rica, November 3, 1989.

1989 Talk: "War of the Worlds: Three Against One." Associated Colleges of the Midwest, San José, Costa Rica, December 6, 1989.

1990 Lecture: "The Third World War: The Fourth Dimension." Keynote Address, Tufts University, Symposia Project, "The Militarization of the Third World: Regional Conflict, International Security, Development and U.S. Foreign Policy," March 2, 1990.

1990 Interview: Voice of America. New government in Nicaragua and autonomous government in Yapti Tasba. Tom Crosby, April 11.

1990 Paper: "Global Patterns of Human Rights Violations," Assoc. of American Geographers, Toronto, Canada, April 22.

1990 Paper: "La Guerra y La Seguridad Ambiental en la Región Fronteriza del Río San Juan." Segundo Congreso Sobre Fronteras en Iberoamérica, San José, Costa Rica, November 14-16, 1990.

1990 Interview: "Vast Marine Reserve Proposed for Miskito Cays off Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua," Tico Times, Friday, November 9, 1990, p. 5.

1990 Interview: "Miskito Coast to get vast marine reserve?" The Times of the Americas, December 12, 1990, p. 10.

1991 Paper: "Recent Environmental Security and Environmental History in the Río San Juan Region." Conference on Forest and Environmental History of Latin America, San José, Costa Rica, February 18-20, 1991.

1991 "Conservation, Conflict and Contraband in Transborder Regions." Paper presented in the session "Central American Boundaries, Environments and Politics," AAG Annual Meetings, Miami, April 16.

1991 Interview: "Fourth World Moves Out of the Shadows," National Geographic Society News Service, Joy Aschenbach, May 1991.

1991 "Environmental Conflicts and Indigenous Nations in Central America." Invited discussion paper, project on Environmental Change and Acute Conflict, Peace and Conflict Studies Program, University of Toronto, and the International Security Studies Program, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Ottawa, June 18.

1991 Interviews: National Geographic Society News Division, radio and newspaper sections: the breakup of states and emerging fourth world nations; coincidence of indigenous peoples and natural environments; the Miskito Coast Protected Area. August.

1991 Keynote lecture: "The Ecology of War and Peace" and "Militarization, Indigenous Peoples and the Environment" Tufts University, EPIIC, September 27-29.

1992 Interview: "New and Old Nations and the Breakup of States," KQED Radio, San Francisco, one-hour, February 3.

1992 Paper: "Indigenous Peoples and Protected Areas: Creating Latin-Indian America’s Largest Coastal Protected Area, ‘Miskito Kupia,’ Eastern Nicaragua." IV World Congress on National Parks and Protected Areas, Caracas, Venezuela, February 10-21.

1992 Interview: Indonesia and East Timor, The Globe and Mail, Toronto, Canada, March 9.

1992 Visiting Professor Lecture Series: "War and the Environment," "Behind the Lines with Geography," and "Down the White Rabbit Hole with Imaginary People." Department of Geography, University of Hawaii, March 16-19, Lecture Series: Social Theory in Human Geography.

1992 Interview: "Conservation by Conflict," Earthwatch, March-April, Vol. XI, No. III, p. 5.

1992 Paper: "Conservation by Indigenous Self-Determination in Nicaragua." Association of American Geographers, 88th Annual Meeting, San Diego, April 21.

1992 Paper: "Nicaragua’s New Environmental Alliance for Indian-Latin America." Invited paper given at the 27th International Geographical Congress, Symposium on "Environmental Visions and Values," August 11, Washington, D.C.

1992 Interview: The Wall Street Journal, "Nicaragua’s Miskito Coast Braces for a Resource War," September 4, 1992, p. A7.

1992 Public lecture: "The Impact of European Penetration on Caribbean and Central American Peoples." Colloquium on "Columbus—1492-1992: A 500 Year Reassessment." College of San Mateo, San Mateo, California, October 14.

1992 Interview: Audubon, November-December (interdependency of cultural and biological diversity)

1992 University lectures: "War and Peace Between Indian and Latin America," "The Geographic Coexistence of Cultural and Environmental Survival," and "An Emerging Environmental Alliance for Nicaragua and the Miskito Nation," University of Wisconsin, November 19-20.

1992 Radio Interview: "The Post-Cold War Breakdown of States." Radio WORT, Madison, interviewed by Erwin Knoll, December 5.

1993 Lecture: "Cultural and Biological Diversity in Latin America." Milwaukee Public School lecture series for High School teachers, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, February 26.

1993 Interview: "5000th Research Grant," Press Breakfast, Committee for Research and Exploration, National Geographic Society, March 31.

1993 Paper: The Conservation of Biological and Cultural Diversity," Special Session, "Allies or Enemies? Indigenous Nations and Protected Areas." Association of American Geographers, 89th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, April 6-10.

1993 Lecture: "The Costa Rican Beach Safety and Lifeguard Program" Rotary Club, Richmond, August 27.

1993 Paper: "Coastal Biodiversity and Conservation in Central America," Special Latin America Session, Association of Pacific Coast Geographers, September 17.

1993 Paper: "Democracy and Biodiversity in Nicaragua." Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Embassy of France, San José, Costa Rica, September 18.

1993 Lecture: "The Interdependence of Cultural and Biological Diversity: Conservation in Central America," Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, September 28.

1993 Lecture: "Biodiversity: Here, There, and Everywhere," Pew Scholars Panel, Society of Environmental Journalists, 1993 National Conference, Duke University, October 23.

1993 Lecture: "The Central American Biodiversity Mapping Project," Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, November 2.

1993 TV Interview: "The Lobster Connection," Inside Edition, CBS, November 12.

1993 Lecture: "Defending Biocultural Diversity in the Far Western Caribbean with SCUBA, Sail and Satellite." Press Conference and lecture, Department of Geography, University of California, November 17.

1995 Lecture: "Protecting Coral Reefs on the Miskito Coast." Marine Policy, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, May 2.


TEACHING

Classes:
Conservation Geography
Islands and Oceans
The Ocean World
World Peoples and Environments
Geography of Indigenous Peoples.
Cultural Geography of Nation Peoples
Cultural and Biological Diversity
Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean

Seminars:
Oceans and Coasts
Field Theories and Methods
Seminar in Maritime Geography
Seminar in Cultural and Human Geography
Seminar on Field Research

Regional Emphasis:
Latin America, Indian America, the Caribbean and the Pacific

Teaching Grants:

1992 To develop new materials for cultural geography courses

1983-84 Spatial Thinking and Learning, University of California, Berkeley

1980 Endangered Species and Habitats, University of California, Berkeley

1979 Introductory Cultural Geography, University of California, Berkeley

1974 Large Group Instruction, "The Study and Use of Visual Media in Cultural Geography," University of Michigan

1972 Innovation Teaching Grant, "Application of Video-taped Field Research in Teaching Human Ecology," University of Michigan


MISCELLANEOUS

Published and Exhibited Color Photographs:

Natural History; Time-Life Books; Lowie Museum, UC Berkeley, "Settlement of Polynesia," June-October, 1978; Stern Magazine; Caribbean Review; Orion.

"Indians in the Crossfire: The Miskito, Sumo and Rama Peoples." Photographs and Project Advisor, exhibited in the Rotunda of the Russell Senate Office Building, Rotunda of the Cannon House Office Building, and at the University of the District of Columbia.


Invited Lectures:

University of Minnesota, University of Wisconsin, Arizona State, University of Florida, Sonoma State, Stanford University, University of Queensland, Australian National University, Simon Frazer, Calgary, California State University Hayward, Institute of International Studies, U.C. Berkeley, National Geographic Society, Gettysburg College, UCLA, Alaska Native Review Commission, University of Hawaii; University of California, Davis; Commonwealth Club, San Francisco; Explorers Club; University of Wisconsin; Yosemite Institute; University of Costa Rica; Tufts University; University of Hawaii; University of Wisconsin; Milwaukee Public Schools; French Embassy, Costa Rica; Richmond Rotary Club; Virginia Polytechnic Institute; Duke University; Missouri Botanical Garden; University of California; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute.

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